The Reflective Student: A Taxonomy of Reflection (Part 2)

» 05 January 2010 » In Commentary, How To, Leadership, Literacy, Reflection, Strategies, Students »

reflective student
reflective student

Reflection can be a challenging endeavor. It's not something that's fostered in school - typically someone else tells you how you're doing! At best, students can narrate what they did, but have trouble thinking abstractly about their learning - patterns, connections and progress.

In an effort to help schools become more reflective learning environments, I've developed this "Taxonomy of Reflection" - modeled on Bloom's approach.  It's posted in four installments:

1.  A Taxonomy of  Reflection  
2. The Reflective Student
3. The Reflective Teacher
4.
The Reflective Principal 

See my Prezi tour of the Taxonomy

2. The Reflective Student

Each level of reflection is structured to parallel Bloom's taxonomy. (See installment 1 for more on the model). Assume that a student looked back on a project or assignment they had completed. What sample questions might they ask themselves as they move from lower to higher order reflection? (Note: I'm not suggesting that all questions are asked after every project - feel free to pick a few that work for you.) Remember that each level can be used to support mastery of the new Common Core standards. 

taxonomy of reflection
taxonomy of reflection

Bloom's Remembering: What did I do?
Student Reflection: What was the assignment? When was it due? Did I get it turned in on time?

Bloom's Understanding: What was important about what I did? Did I meet my goals?
Student Reflection: Do I understand the parts of the assignment and how they connect? Did my response completely cover all parts of the assignment? Do I see where this fits in with what we are studying? 

Bloom's Application: When did I do this before? Where could I use this again?
Student Reflection: How was this assignment similar to other assignments? (in this course or others). Do I see connections in either content, product or process? Are there ways to adapt it to other assignments? Where could I use this (content, product or process) my life?

Bloom's Analysis: Do I see any patterns or relationships in what I did?
Student Reflection: Were the strategies, skills and procedures I used effective for this assignment? Do I see any patterns in how I approached my work - such as  following an outline, keeping to deadlines? What were the results of the approach I used - was it efficient, or could I have eliminated or reorganized steps?

Bloom's Evaluation: How well did I do? What worked? What do I need to improve?
Student Reflection: What are we learning and is it important? Did I do an effective job of communicating my learning to others? What have I learned about my strengths and my areas in need of improvement? How am I progressing as a learner?

Bloom's Creation: What should I do next? What's my plan / design? 
Student Reflection: How can I best use my strengths to improve? What steps should I take or resources should I use to meet my challenges? What suggestions do I have for my teacher or my peers to improve our learning environment? How can I adapt this content or skill to make a difference in my life?

Image credit: flickr/Daveybot

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21 Comments on "The Reflective Student: A Taxonomy of Reflection (Part 2)"

  1. peter
    Hadley Ferguson
    16/02/2010 at 4:17 pm Permalink

    After working on a collaborative project, I had my class fill out a reflection sheet, based on Peter’s ideas. When they had finished writing about it, I asked their response to doing the reflection. “I love writing a reflection. It finishes out the activity. It’s like a period at the end.”

    Just what I was after!

  2. peter
    Cristina Milos
    12/12/2010 at 11:02 am Permalink

    Hi Peter,

    Thank you for the comment on my blog. You requested the link and here it is.
    http://ateacherswonderings.posterous.com/reflection-with-and-by-students

  3. peter
    Peter Pappas
    12/12/2010 at 12:46 pm Permalink

    Christina, Thanks for adding the link to you post “Reflection with and by Students” It’s an excellent collection of reflective prompts for elementary students – worth looking at!

  4. peter
    Gareth Jacobson
    20/03/2011 at 8:32 pm Permalink

    Hi Peter,

    Thanks for the link to your blog. I find student reflection such a fascinating area of learning and one that I constantly strive toward supporting in each child. Like you I also have attempted to map out the journey of reflective learning, here is my “work in progress.” Any comments most welcome:

    http://www.scribd.com/doc/38236032/A-Developmental-Model-of-Relfection

  5. peter
    Peter Pappas
    21/03/2011 at 12:14 pm Permalink

    Gareth,
    I looked at your reflective map in link above. Another great approach to reflection. I recommend it to my readers!
    Thanks for posting! ~ Peter

  6. peter
    D. Sample
    14/04/2011 at 3:09 am Permalink

    I would like to thank the author for this marvelous efforts .I appreciate your efforts in preparing this post. I really like your blog articles.

  7. peter
    Rose
    09/01/2012 at 12:06 am Permalink

    I would like to thank Peter for this wonderful effort, it’s worth referring. Much appreciate & thanks once again for sharing!

  8. peter
    Victoria
    07/06/2012 at 3:10 am Permalink

    What is the best way to teach concrete thinking 2nd graders?

  9. peter
    Peter Pappas
    08/06/2012 at 2:27 pm Permalink

    Hi Victoria, An interesting question, but I’m afraid that I’m not equipped to give you a good answer. Perhaps one of my readers can be of help. Sorry~ Peter

  10. peter
    Madam Low Swee Ping
    02/08/2012 at 8:39 am Permalink

    Mr Peter Pappas,
    Your work is excellent and I am grateful to have found this website. tqtqtqvm

  11. peter
    Frahm
    06/12/2012 at 11:50 am Permalink

    Hey Peter –

    I really enjoyed this post – it was a great anchor for reflection for my middle school writers. Their reflections were much more meaningful and purposeful as a result. Thank you for sharing.

  12. peter
    Peter Pappas
    06/12/2012 at 1:02 pm Permalink

    Tia,
    So glad to hear that you found some inspiration in my post. I took a look at your blog and thought I’d provide a link so my readers cans see some of your reflections.
    Cheers ~ Peter

  13. peter
    Daniel
    26/09/2013 at 11:08 am Permalink

    I feel like I found a box of treasure. Not being in the educational industry directly, I had not heard of this methodology. Thank you Peter for this.

  14. peter
    Peter Pappas
    26/09/2013 at 11:23 am Permalink

    Daniel,
    Thanks for taking the time to comment and share your thoughts. Glad to offer it up for all to enjoy.
    ~ Cheers, Peter

  15. peter
    Karen Kraeger
    20/06/2014 at 7:58 am Permalink

    This is a marvelous post! As an NBCT, I highly value reflection for it’s positive benefit on my teaching practice. I am very excited to use this approach with my intermediate grade gifted students this year! It hits several of our standards, and I’m sure it will have a positive benefit for their learning. Thank you for sharing this good work!

  16. peter
    Peter Pappas
    20/06/2014 at 8:45 am Permalink

    Karen,
    Glad you see value in the model. I appreciate the feedback.
    ~ Cheers, Peter

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  5. […] reflective prompts. A full collection of prompts at all levels of the taxonomy is available here students, teachers, and …

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