How to Read Documentary Films

» 26 August 2014 » In History / DBQ's, How To, Strategies » No Comments

Child waiting to be taken to Manzanar April 1942 LC-DIG-fsa-8a31173

While many are aware that the US government forcibly removed and incarcerated more than 120,000 U.S. residents of Japanese ancestry during WWII. Few people know that the government recruited some of these same people to work at farm labor camps across the west to harvest crops essential to the war effort.

Uprooted from Uprooted Exhibit

Uprooted: Japanese American Farm Labor Camps During World War II is a traveling photography exhibit (and website) that tells this story and provides a treasure trove of resources for historians, teachers and students. Uprooted draws from images of Japanese American farm labor camps taken by Russell Lee in the summer of 1942. Lee worked as a staff photographer for the Farm Security Administration (FSA), a federal agency that between 1935 and 1944 produced approximately 175,000 black-and-white film negatives and 1,600 color photographs.

I worked with the Uprooted team and developed a lesson How reliable are documentary films as a historic source? The lesson begins with the teacher telling students that they are about to watch two short videos about the experience of some Japanese Americans during World War II. The first video was made in 1943 by the US government as an informational service to the US public. It features video shot in 1941 and 1942 and narration by a government official. The second video was made in 2014 by documentary filmmakers to accompany the Uprooted Exhibit. It features historic video from World War II as well as oral history interviews with Japanese Americans that the filmmakers shot in 2013 and 2014. The narration is taken from the interviews. Before the videos are shown, the teacher asks the students which video they think will be a more reliable historical source. (Be sure to have them justify their thinking to their peers). Prompts include: 

  • A video made in the era being studied or a video made over seventy years later?
  • A video made by the United States government or a video made by documentary filmmakers?
  • A video narrative by a government official or a video narrated by people who participated in the event?

The lesson then guides students through comparisons of both videos based on close reading strategies - what does the video say? how does it say it? what does it mean to me?

A complete lesson plan, collection of images and historic documents is available at Uprooted. A second lesson plan considers the question:  How reliable are documentary photographs as a historic source? The site even includes a kit for students to curate their own Uprooted museum mini-exhibit.

You can find Uprooted on Twitter | Facebook | Flickr | Instagram

The museum exhibit open at The Four Rivers Cultural Center in Ontario, OR on September 12, 2014 and runs through December 12, 2014. It then travels to Minidoka County (ID) Historical Society and the Oregon Nikkei Legacy Center in Portland Ore. More exhibit info and updates

I'd like to close this post by crediting the talented team behind Uprooted. Curator - Morgen Young, Web and Graphics Designer -Melissa Delzio, Videographers - Courtney Hermann and Kerribeth Elliott. Uprooted is a project of the Oregon Cultural Heritage Commission.

Image credit:  Child waiting to be taken to Manzanar, April 1942, Los Angeles, California. Photographer Russell Lee. Library of Congress (Prints & Photographs Division, FSA-OWI Collection, LC-USF33-013290-M4)

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How to Read Documentary Photographs

» 12 August 2014 » In History / DBQ's, How To, Strategies » No Comments

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Lesson on using photographs as documents to develop historical thinking skills in sourcing, contextualizing, corroborating and close reading. Features material from “Uprooted” a museum exhibit and website that showcases the photography of Russell Lee, staff photographer for the Farm Security Administration (FSA) and his work at the Japanese American farm labor camps of WWII.

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Learning to Think Like a Historian

» 03 June 2014 » In Commentary, History / DBQ's, Strategies, Students, Teachers » No Comments

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I’m joined by other educators who comment on “Teaching History By Encouraging Curiosity.” Ideas on how to create a more engaging history classroom that teaches students the foundations of historical thinking. With links to more resources and a podcast.

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Anne Frank: A Primary Source DBQ

» 15 December 2013 » In Ed Tech, History / DBQ's, Projects, Students » No Comments

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One of my University of Portland pre-service teachers showcases her online DBQ – “Anne Frank: A Timeless Story.” She explores Anne’s diary as historic source document. Erin Deatherage also reflects on the experience of designing DBQs.

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Visions of Freedom: The American Revolution

» 08 December 2013 » In Ed Tech, History / DBQ's, Projects, Students » 2 Comments

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I’ve asked my University of Portland students to reflect on a DBQ assignment and invited them to guest post on my blog. Here is “Visions of Freedom: The American Revolution” – a DBQ designed by Collin Soderberg-Chase. This DBQ presents multiple “views of freedom” viewed through the “lenses” of differing perspectives held during American revolutionary era. The essential question examines what factors influence one’s vision of freedom.

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Visual Rhetoric of Women’s Suffrage

» 01 December 2013 » In Ed Tech, History / DBQ's, Projects, Students » No Comments

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Two of my University of Portland pre-service teachers showcase their online DBQ “Propaganda of the American Suffrage Movement, c. 1910-1920.” This DBQ is designed to encourage students to think critically about the American suffrage movement propaganda. The generative questions are: “How do images express biases?” and “How are political, social, and economic factors presented?” Heather Treanor and Cory Cassanova also reflects on the experience of designing DBQs.

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Image and Emotion / WWII Propaganda Posters

» 29 November 2013 » In Ed Tech, History / DBQ's, Projects, Students » No Comments

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One of my University of Portland pre-service teachers showcases his online DBQ “Image and Emotion – WWII Propaganda Posters.” Five propaganda themes are explored through parallel sets of posters from US and Axis power. Aram Glick also reflects on the experience of designing DBQs.

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1950s Red Scare – A Student Designed DBQ

» 25 November 2013 » In Ed Tech, History / DBQ's, Projects, Students » 4 Comments

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Two of my University of Portland pre-service teachers showcases their online DBQ “1950s Red Scare.” Videos, posters and documents use a media lens to consider “How does a nation develop such an intense fear and enemy, creating mass hysteria?” Christina Steiner and Kristi Convissor also reflect on the experience of designing DBQs.

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Learnist: Pinterest for Educators?

» 20 November 2013 » In Ed Tech, History / DBQ's, Visualizations, Web 2.0 » 2 Comments

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I was looking for an online content creation tool – an education-friendly, social network that would allow my pre-service history teachers to post a variety of content, annotate it and provide tools to comment on each other’s work. I tried Learnist – a free web tool. Here’s my sample Learnist – Incarceration of Japanese Americans During WWII. Plus a product review (with students comments).

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Text to Text: A Strategy for Common Core Close Reading

» 26 September 2013 » In How To, Literacy, Strategies » 5 Comments

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The NY Times Learning Network has just launched a new series of lesson plans called “Text to Text.” It’s a simple approach that pairs two written texts that “speak to each other.” I think it’s a Common Core close reading strategy that could be easily replicated by teachers across the curriculum – great way to blend nonfiction with fiction and incorporate a variety of media with written text.

Each lesson includes a key question, extension activities and additional resources to expand the basic lesson. Here’s two graphic organizers to help student organize their “Text to Text” thinking.

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